Principles Of Wireless Power

a) Nikola Tesla and the True Wireless

In the period from 1890 to 1900 Dr. Nikola Tesla was engaged in the systematic research of high frequency electric waves with the specific aim of developing a method transmission and reception of electric energy without the use of connecting wires. Inspired by Dr. Heinrich Hertz's experimental researches into the Maxwell theory of electro-magnetic waves, Dr. Tesla developed various apparatus with the object of exploring the developments of Dr. Hertz. Tesla found his progress slow until he developed his oscillat­ing current (O.C.) transformer, known as the Tesla Transformer, which allowed for his progress beyond the original experiments of Dr. Hertz and thus beyond the original theory of electro-magnetism.

Tesla found to his dismay that it was not possible to demonstrate that the emanations from his O.C. transformer were akin to the transverse vibr­ations of light waves as theorized by Maxwell, which Dr. Hertz among others sought to verify. At this point Tesla began to doubt if the Maxwell theory had any validity. To quote:

"For more than 18 years I have been reading treatises, reports of scientific transactions, and articles on Hertz-wave theory, to keep myself informed, but they have always impressed me like works of fiction".

What Tesla had discovered was that the emanations from his O.C. tran­sformer were of longitudinal-dielectric waveform, that is, in the form of ELECTRIC RAYS OF INDUCTION. This indicates the purpose of Tesla's exten­sive research into X-rays and kindred forms of radiation, which were con­sidered longitudinal waves in the luminiferous aether by Tesla and his contemporaries.

The theories of electric waves was of no concern to G. Marconi however, and by his adaptation of Dr. Tesla's fundamental patents went on to estab­lish commercial wireless communication. By 1919 Marconi completed constr­uction of five high frequency power plants around the world. These plants generated currents at a frequency of 18,000 cycles/ second, produced by 200 Kilowatt motor-generator sets.

The alternators employed in these M.G. sets were fashioned after those developed by Tesla but became known as the Alexanderson alternators, after C.P. Steinmetz's protoge Ernst F.W. Alexanderson. These alternators delive­red currents to what is called the multiple loaded flat top antenna. A dia­gram and equivalent circuit of the Bolinas, California plant is shown in figure (1).

FIG (1)

Upon completion of these wireless plants in 1919 the U.S. government established the Radio Corporation Of America (R.C.A.) to take control of the plants constructed upon U.S. territory. R.C.A., Marconi Wireless Co., and others went on to develop wireless (now radio) communication based upon transverse, or Hertzian, waveforms. The culmination of the transverse wave antenna was the R.C.A. type "D" director, later to become the well known rhombic antenna, figure (2).

FIG (2)

These developments firmly entrenched the use of Hertzian waves in the practice of wireless communication, thereby diverting interest from the waveforms discovered by Dr. Nikola Tesla. Tesla's progress in commercial development was further delayed by his absolute insistance upon establis­hing a perfect system, the "World System", of wireless power and commun­ication. The World System was much more costly and complex than the simple installations of Marconi. To quote Dr. Tesla's thoughts about the devel­opment of wireless at this point in history:

"The commercial application of the art has led to the construction of larger transmitters and multip­lication of their number, greater distances had to be covered and it became imperative to employ receiving devices of ever greater sensitiveness. All these changes have co-operated in emphasizing the trouble and seriously impairing the reliability and value of the plants. To such a degree has this been the case that conservative business men and financiers have come to look upon this method of conveying intelligence as one offering but very limited possibilities, and the Government has deemed it advisable to assume control. This unfortunate state of affairs, fatal to the enlis­tment of capital and healthful competitive development, could have been avoided had electricians not remained to this day under a delusive theory and had the practical exploiters of this advance not permitted enterprise to outrun technical competence".

Dr. Tesla remained unswayed by these commercial developments and their impact upon scientific thought. Tesla understood that the transverse, or Hertzian. waveform was useless for the transmission of electric energy on an industrial scale. The scattering nature of these waves represents the primary limitation to efficient energy transfer, to quote:

"Nothing illustrates this better than the recent demonstrations of a number of experts with very short waves, which have created the impression that power will be eventually transmitted by such means. In reality, experiments of this kind are the very denial of the possibility of economic transmission of electric energy."

This of course brings to mind the recent proposal to transmit from a satellite in outer space megawatts of photo-voltaic energy via a micro-wave beam down to the earth's surface.

b) The Tesla system

The system of transmission and reception of electric energy without the employment of connecting wires, or waveguides, as conceived by Dr. Tesla IS NOT the propagation of any type of electromagnetic wave, nor is it the excitation of the earth-ionosphere waveguide. Tesla's system employes resonant actions along lines, or rays, of ELECTRIC INDUCTION, these lines standing between the transmitter and the receiver, figure (3). The appar­atus for establishing these lines of induction is called the Tesla Magni­fying Transmitter (T.M.T.). The T.M.T. is a system of resonant transformers harmonically balanced to the electric condition of the earth. The mono-polar nature of the T.M.T. induction facilitates the ease of transmission and reception that this apparatus exhibits.

FIG (3)

These lines of induction established by the T.M.T. are drawn into the high inductivity of the earth's interior; despite the conductivity of the surface, which would screen electro-magnetic waves. To illustrate this point consider Tesla's description of an experiment:

"I have here a short and wide tube which is exhausted to a high degree and covered with a substantial coating of bronze, the coating allowing barely the light to shine through. A metallic clasp, with a hook for suspending the tube, is fastened around the middle portion of the latter, the clasp being in contact with the bronze coating. I now want to light the gas inside by suspending the tube on a wire connected to the coil. Any one who would try the experiment for the first time, not having any previous experience, would probably take care to be quite alone when making the trial, for fear that he might become the joke of his assistants. Still, the bulb lights in spite of the metal coating, and the light can be distinctly perceived through the latter. A long tube covered with aluminium bronze lights when held in one hand — the other touching the terminal of the coil — quite powerfully. It might be objected that the coatings arc not sufficiently conducting; still, even if they were highly resistant, they ought to screen the gas. They certainly screen it perfectly in a condition of rest, but not by far perfectly when the charge is surging in the coating. But the loss of energy which occurs within the tube, notwithstanding the screen, is occasioned principally by the presence of the gas. Were we to take a large hollow metallic sphere and fill it with a perfect incompressible fluid dielectric, there would be no loss inside of the sphere, and consequently the inside might be considered as perfectly screened, though the potential be very rapidly alternating. Even were the sphere filled with oil, the loss would be incomparably smaller than when the fluid is replaced by a gas, for in the latter case the force produces displacements; that means impact and collisions in the inside."

The dielectric induction thru the interior of the earth communicates the energy from the transmitter to the receiver as shown by figure (4). The unused portion of energy is reflected back to the transmitter more or less completely. Operating this energy reciprication between transmitter and receiver at the natural period and waveshape of the earth's own energy pulsation rate greatly overcomes the effect of distance, hence no significant loss of energy is apperent. Thus a standing wave of induction energy exists between the transmitter and receiver, or what can be called transponders, pulsating at one of the earth s natural harmonics. If the phase angle of the earth pulsation frequency lags the phase angle of the pulsating frequency energy is abstracted from the earth's supply of energy and delivered as "free energy" to the transponders.

It can therefore be seen that while the transmission of transverse waves involves the spraying of energy, with its consequent square law diminish­ment of energy density, and no hope of retrieving the unused energy, the Tesla system involves the direct connection of transmitter and receiver, via the pulsating lines of electric induction. Therefore, the transmitter and receiver are rendered as one apparatus.

FIG (4)

Tesla's World-Wide wireless Transmission of Electrical Signals, As Well As Light and Power, is here illustrated In Theory, Analogy and Realization. Tesla's Experiments with 100 Foot Discharges At Potentials of Millions of Volts Have Demonstrated That the Hertz Waves Are lnfinitesimal In Effect and Unrecoverable: the Recoverable Ground Waves of Tesla Fly "Thru the Earth". Radio Engineers Are Gradually Beginning to See the Light and That the Laws of Propagation Laid Down by Tesla Over a Quarter of a Century Ago Form theReal and True Baals of All Wireless Transmission To-Day.
Note: these images appear to originate from Tesla's THE TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY WITHOUT WIRES Communicated to the Thirtieth Anniversary Number of the Electrical World and Engineer, March 5, 1904. (lamare May 30, 2011, at 12:41 PM)

c) Operating principles of the T.M.T.

Because the energy is propagated thru the "ground" the question exists as to how to ground the apparatus, that is, how to establish an electric reference point, since the so called ground is now the hot terminal of the transponders, and therefore is incapable of also serving as an electric reference point. Here exists the singular feature of the Tesla O.C. tran­sformer in that the distributed mutual inductance and odd function resonance work to establish a virtual ground. This fundamental principle of virtual grounding is also to be found in the Tesla Tele-geodynamic Oscillator (T.G.O.) which serves as a mechanical analog to the T.M.T. The principle behind this is the geometrical reconfiguration of the fund­amental components of energy, the kinetic and potential, this reconfiguration resulting in the separation of cause and effect in not only time but also in space. The result hereof is the circumvention of the Newtonian laws of action and reaction. This allows for the production of heretofore unexp­lored phenomena.

Hence, the T.M.T. as well as the T.G.O. is capable of transmitting vibrations by virtue of the fact that it is SELF REFERENCING, thereby not requiring any ground, that is, no solid backing from which to push against. This relates to the saying "Give me a fulcrum and I will move the earth". Tesla found this fulcrum and moved the earth; both mechanically, producing a local earthquake in New York City; and electrically, producing a stand­ing lightning discharge at Colorado Springs (and possibly lightning else­where on the planet).

The Tesla transponder (T.M.T.) can be divided into FIVE distinct com­ponents:

  1. ) EARTH

The interconnection of these five components is shown by figure (5).

FIG (5)

In this arrangement energy is continuously bounced back and forth between the earth and the reflecting capacitance at a rate tuned to a natural rate of the earth. This standing wave of energy pulsation is main­tained by the energy transformer which delivers electric energy to this standing wave via the coupling transformer. A certain percentage of this energy in the standing wave is refracted thru the earth-transformer refl­ection point and into the earth. This refracted energy establishes another standing wave in the earth. Hence, a pair of standing waves are produced which communicate energy thru the refraction. The oscillating resonant coil, tuned to an earth harmonic, establishes a virtual ground at one terminal of the coupling transformer thus rendering the earth terminal active from the standpoint relative to the electric conditions surrounding the apparatus. The coil terminal deginated as the reflecting capacitance appears active and the earth terminal appears to be neutral, whereas from the earth's standpoint the earth terminal is active. Thus, the reason for the popular notion that the reflecting capacitance Fig (5) is the output of the apparatus. In light of the virtual ground theory this is obviously not correct. See figure (6).

The electric conditions surrounding the T.M.T. no longer can be rep­resented by conventional, or electromagnetic, concepts because the system has converted the electro-magnetic energy of the dimensions

{$ W_11 = m c^2 = m frac{l^2}{t^2} $}

into a de-materialized, or mass free energy. The dimensions of this form of energy were given by Dr. Wilhelm Reich as

{$ W_1 = frac{l^3}{t^2} $}{$ m=l $}

This de-materialized energy is the spatial analog of the reactive , or wattless- energy that is encountered in alternating current systems. Plasma discharges resulting from dielectric saturation (breakdown) of the dielectric medium that surrounds the T.M.T. no longer can be related to the laws of thermodynamics but are related to the laws of organic GROWTH, such as the spontaneous production of energy and Go" den ratio proportioning. It is of particular interest to note that these Phenomena serve as exper­imental verification of the theory of Cosmic Superimposition as put forth by Dr. Wilhelm Reich.

The pulsation of energy between the energy transformer, which is di­electric in nature, and the coupling transformer, which is magnetic in in nature represents an additional standing wave independent of that of the resonant coil and independent of that of the earth. This new standing wave is called an electric oscillation and represents a standing wave in the dimension of time. The energy of this standing wave is refracted thru the coupling transformer thereby exchanging energy with the other standing wave as shown schematically in figure (7). It can be seen that the T.M.T. involves three distinct standing waves in its operation, each coupled to the other thru two points of refraction. Each of these standing waves represents a distinct dimensional aspect:


FIG (6)

FIG (7)

The analogous relations in musical representation are:


In order for this triple resonant, or sextic (6) energy transient to operate in consonant resonance, conjugate relation must be made to exist between all six energies. Unfortunately, very little theoretical knowledge exists for transients of more than double energy. This is primarily due to the limited understanding of the science of algebra with regard to the solutions of equations higher than second degree.